Pencil Cactus (Euphorbia tirucalli) : Caring And Growing Tips

Pencil Cactus (Euphorbia tirucalli)

If you’re looking for a unique and intriguing succulent to add to your collection, the Pencil Cactus might just be the plant for you.

Scientifically known as Euphorbia tirucalli, it is a distinctive succulent native to Africa and India. Its most notable feature is its slender, cylindrical stems that resemble pencils or sticks, giving rise to its common name.

This plant belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family and is not a true cactus but rather a succulent.

With its striking appearance and relatively low maintenance requirements, this plant has become a favorite among succulent enthusiasts.

People call it milk brush or firesticks too for its unique appearance.

If you plan to grow it at home, read our suggestions to grow, bloom and propagate Pencil cactus.

Overview of Pencil Cactus:

Overview of Pencil Cactus:
Native RangeAfrica and India
Growth HabitTall, columnar stems with pencil-like appearance
ColorBright green stems
SpinesTiny, inconspicuous spines along stems
FlowersSmall, yellow-green flowers at stem tips
SizeCan grow up to 30 feet tall
ToxicityMilky sap is toxic and can cause skin irritation
WateringDrought-tolerant, requires infrequent watering
Light RequirementsFull sun to partial shade
Hardiness ZonesTypically grown as a houseplant; not cold hardy

How to Identify a Pencil Cactus

The process of identifying a Pencil Cactus involves closely observing its distinct features that set it apart from other succulents and plants.

How to Identify a Pencil Cactus
ShapeUpright, columnar growth habit with densely packed pencil-thin stems
ColorsVibrant shade of green, intensifies under bright sunlight
SpinesModified leaves resembling spines, small and inconspicuous
FlowersSmall, yellow-green flowers at stem tips during the growing season
SizeCan attain a height of up to 30 feet under optimal conditions


The Pencil Cactus is instantly recognizable by its unique growth habit. It grows in an upright, columnar manner, resembling a bundle of pencils or sticks tightly packed together.

This growth pattern gives the plant an architectural and striking appearance, making it a favorite among succulent enthusiasts.


The stems of the Pencil Cactus are a vivid and vibrant shade of green. The color intensifies under bright sunlight, which contributes to its eye-catching appeal. This green hue gives the plant a fresh and lively appearance that stands out in any collection.


Pencil Cactus actually features modified leaves that appear spiny. These structures are very small. Moreover, they will often be inconspicuous, arranged along the length of the stems.

They serve a protective function for the plant and might not be immediately obvious upon first glance.


During the growing season, the Pencil Cactus produces small, yellow-green flowers at the tips of its stems.

These flowers are relatively inconspicuous compared to the plant’s distinctive stems but add a delicate touch to its appearance. The flowering period adds an extra layer of interest to this already captivating succulent.


When provided with optimal growing conditions, the Pencil Cactus can achieve an impressive height of up to 30 feet. This remarkable growth potential makes it a remarkable focal point in gardens, landscapes, or large indoor spaces.

Its towering presence and slender stems create a visually dramatic effect.

How to Take Care of Pencil Cactus for Healthy Growth

When you grow pencil cactus at home, you need to take proper care for it. It includes:

How to Take Care of Pencil Cactus for Healthy Growth


Pencil Cacti thrive on ample sunlight. Ideally, place your plant in a south-facing window where it can receive direct sunlight for a significant part of the day.

The intense light helps maintain the plant’s vibrant green color and encourages its distinctive upright growth. While the Pencil Cactus can tolerate some shade, don’t deprive it of sufficient sunlight.

Or this might result in leggy growth and reduced visual appeal.


Choosing the right soil is crucial to prevent root rot and ensure optimal growth. So, opt for a cactus or succulent mix with proper drainage to promote proper water drainage.

These soil mixes prevent excess moisture around the roots, which is essential for succulents like the Pencil Cactus that are prone to rotting in soggy conditions.


Watering a Pencil Cactus requires a delicate balance. This plant is highly drought-tolerant. During the growing season, which spans spring to early fall, water the plant sparingly but thoroughly. In the dormant winter months, reduce watering frequency even further to prevent waterlogged soil.


Pencil Cacti thrive in warm temperatures. Avoid exposing the plant to temperatures below 50°F (10°C) as it is sensitive to cold. If you’re growing your Pencil Cactus outdoors, make sure to bring it indoors before the onset of frost to protect it from freezing temperatures.


As your Pencil Cactus grows, it may outgrow its current pot and become root-bound. Repotting every 2-3 years, preferably in the spring, allows the plant to have enough space for its roots to expand and grow.

Choose a slightly larger pot and refresh the soil mix during repotting to provide your plant with the necessary nutrients.


To maintain the Pencil Cactus’s desirable shape and prevent leggy growth, occasional pruning is recommended. Trim back any excessive or straggly growth, especially at the top of the stems.

Use clean, sharp pruning shears to make precise cuts, and be cautious of the milky sap that the plant exudes, as it can be irritating to the skin and eyes.

How to Get Pencil Cactus to Bloom

Pencil Cactus is primarily grown for its striking green stems. Here are some suggestions that might encourage your Pencil Cactus to bloom:

How to Get Pencil Cactus to Bloom

Tip 1: Provide Optimal Light

  • Place the plant in a location with plenty of bright, indirect sunlight.
  • Avoid exposing it to direct sunlight, especially during the hottest part of the day.

Tip 2: Monitor Temperature

  • Keep the plant in a warm environment, ideally between 65°F to 85°F (18°C to 29°C).
  • Avoid exposing the plant to extreme temperature fluctuations.

Tip 3: Fertilize Wisely

  • Feed the plant with a diluted, balanced, liquid fertilizer during the growing season.
  • Avoid over-fertilizing, as excessive nutrients can lead to more vegetative growth instead of flowering.

Tip 4: Promote Dormancy and Be Patient

  • Mimic the natural light cycle by reducing daylight hours during the fall and winter months.
  • This can help trigger a dormancy period that may encourage the plant to produce flowers when conditions improve.
  • Pencil Cacti are not known for frequent blooming. Even with optimal care, blooming might not occur every year. Don’t be discouraged if your plant doesn’t bloom – its main attraction is its unique stem structure.

Common Pests and Diseases For Pencil Cactus

Pencil Cactus is generally a hardy succulent. However, like any plant, it can be susceptible to certain pests and diseases.


Mealybugs and spider mites are potential pests. You might see whitish spots on the cactus stem for pest attacks. Regularly inspect your plant and use insecticidal soap or neem oil if infestations occur.


Root rot can be an issue if the plant is overwatered. Ensure proper drainage and avoid excess moisture.

Moreover, powdery mildew is a fungal disease that appears as a white, powdery substance on the leaves. It can occur in humid conditions with poor air circulation. Remove affected leaves and improve air circulation around the plant.

Viral Infections

Pencil Cacti can be susceptible to viral infections that can cause stunted growth, mottled or distorted leaves, and other abnormal growth patterns. There’s no cure for viral infections, so prevention is key.

Prevention and Treatment

  • Quarantine new plants before introducing them to your collection to prevent spreading issues.
  • Ensure proper watering practices to avoid overwatering and encourage good drainage.
  • Maintain a clean growing environment by removing dead leaves and debris.
  • If you notice signs of pests or diseases, consider using natural remedies like neem oil or insecticidal soap before resorting to chemical treatments.

How to Propagate Pencil Cactus

Propagating Pencil Cactus can be done through stem cuttings. Follow these step-by-step instructions to successfully propagate your Pencil Cactus:

Materials You’ll Need

  • Healthy Pencil Cactus plant
  • Sharp, clean pruning shears or scissors
  • Rooting hormone (optional)
  • Well-draining potting mix
  • Small pots or containers
  • Spray bottle
  • Plastic wrap or a clear plastic dome (for maintaining humidity)

Step 1: Prepare the Parent Plant And Gather Cutting

Choose a healthy Pencil Cactus stem for propagation. Look for a stem that is at least 6 inches long and without any signs of damage, pests, or diseases. Also, using sharp and clean pruning shears. You must make a clean cut just below a node.

Step 2: Allow the Cutting to Dry And Apply Rooting

Let the cutting sit in a cool, dry spot for a few days. When you allow the cut end to callus over it will moisture-related issues when the cutting is planted. As a result, the newborn pencil cactus will be in better health.

If you wish, dip the cut end of the callused cutting into rooting hormone. This can encourage the development of roots.

Step 3: Plant the Cutting And Provide Care

Take small pots or containers and fill them with a well-draining potting mix suitable for succulents. Gently press the cut end of the stem into the soil, burying it about an inch deep. Make sure the cutting is securely positioned.

Mist the soil lightly with to settle it around the cutting. Place the pots in an area with bright, indirect sunlight. Avoid direct sun, as it can be too harsh for newly propagated cuttings.

Step 4: Maintain Humidity And Watering Frequency

Cover the pots with clear plastic wrap or a clear plastic dome. This creates a microenvironment with high humidity around the cutting, which promotes rooting. Keep an eye on soil moisture and avoid over-saturation.

Regularly check the cutting for signs of new growth. This indicates that the cutting is successfully developing roots. It can take a few weeks to a couple of months. If the soil feels dry, lightly mist it to maintain humidity.

Step 5: Transplanting Pencil Cactus

As the cutting starts growing and developing roots, gradually expose it to normal conditions.

For this, remove the plastic covering for a few hours each day. Once the cutting has a strong root system, it can be transplanted to a larger container or directly into the garden, depending on your climate.


The Pencil Cactus is a captivating and visually appealing succulent that can make a stunning addition to your indoor or outdoor garden.

You can enjoy the beauty of this distinctive plant as you ensure its healthy growth and longevity.

With the right care, your Pencil Cactus can thrive and become a centerpiece in your outdoor succulent collection.

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